Rose, one of the most wonderful creations of the mother-nature, has cash value. As ever, the commercial demands for rose is rising the world over including India.
The cultivation of roses at the mass commercial level is done all around the world including India since the time immemorial. The rose flowers with branches or cut flower and petal flowers of both types are found in the market on a commercial level.
The export of roses is very important for India as its overseas demand is rising globally. The rose is cultivated for various purposes. They include cut flower, rose water, rose oil and Gulkand.
In India, the rose is cultivated commercially mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, Bengal, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Some facts about rose cultivation are detailed below:
The weather and land
The cultivation of rose is done in the north and south India in the plains and mountainous areas in the winter season. The temperature during the day should be 25 to 30 centigrade and that during the night from 12 to 14 degree centigrade is supposed to be the best.
For the cultivation of roses, loam soil should be of more organic matter whose Ph value is supposed to be useful between 5.3 to 6.5.
There are about 6 types of varieties of roses.
Preparation of land for cultivation
From the aesthetic point of view, the field is divided into seed-plots. The length of seed-plots should be 5 meters and the width of it should be 2 meters. A space of half a meter should be left between two seed-plots. The plant and lane to lane distance is kept 30 x 60 centimeter.
At this distance, on sowing of plants, the branch of the flowers is long and it is easy to cut it.
It’s plant is prepared by T- budding at the top of the wild rose. The stem of wild rose is fixed at a distance of about 15 centimeter in the seed-plots in June and July.
From November to December, in these stems, branches come out and the thorns are chopped off with the help of knife.
In January, from a good variety of rose, by taking out a T-shaped branch and is tied tightly at the top of the wild rose in T-Shape with the help of a Polythene. As the temperature increases, the branches come out of these.
In July and August, the plants get prepared for sowing. Sowing of plants should be done in north India by September-October phase after digging the plants from the nursery carefully. Note that at the time of sowing, after removing the weed, the plants should be sowed at a height of 15 cm from the level of ground.
Irrigate the plants immediately after planting them.
To reap the harvest of high quality flowers, after pruning, irrigate after mixing 10 kg of rotten cow dung in the soil. One week after mixing the manure, when the new sprouts break in, then make a mixture of 200 grams of oil cakes of neem tree, 100grams of powder of bones and chemical fertilizers and give 50 grams of the mixture per plant.
The management of irrigation for rose should be extremely good.
As per the needs, one should irrigate during summers, after a gap of 5-7 days and during winters after a gap of 10-12 days.
The powdery mildew disease and reverse dry disease affects the rose. To prevent the mildew disease, make a solution of two grams of sulphur per litre of water or dynocop one mililitre per litre of water or one mililitre of tricoderma per litre of water and sprinkle twice within a period of 15 days and by changing the treatment alternately.
To prevent the dry disease, one should make a solution of 50 percent copper oxicloride 3 grams per litre of water and sprinkle so that dry disease does not occur.
One should cut the flower when the half open petals of white, red and pink color flowers start turning towards downside. At the time of cutting the flowers, one should leave one or two leaves on the branch so that there is no difficulty in the growth of the plants.
At the time of cutting the flowers keep water in a utensil so that the flowers can be kept in it immediately after cutting. Water should be about 10 cm in height in the utensil so that the branch of flowers is kept immersed in water.
Preservatives should also be mixed in water. After keeping the flowers for three hours in water, they should be taken out for grading.
If the grading is to be done after some time then keep the flowers at a temperature of 1 to 3 Degree centigrade in a cold storage so that the quality of flowers turns out to be good.
The harvest of rose flowers depends upon the care of the fertility power and on the species. Even then, in general, the yield of rose is about 200 to 250 quintal per hectare. This yield is obtained from the cut flower in a year’s time.
Progressive farmers are earning through rose cultivation
The rose farmers in Bulgaria are earning lakhs of rupees every month through the cultivation of this queen of flowers.
They are also selling the scent and rose water besides the cut flowers. In the Arabian countries, the scent made from the Bulgarian variety is in high demand. This scent is sold there at a rate of Rs. 8 lakhs per kilogram.
How is the scent made?
• In a big utensil of copper, water and rose flowers are kept.
• After this, a coat of soil is done on the outer-body of the utensils and fire is lit at their bottom.
• In the form of steam, water and rose scent are collected in a utensil. The utensil in which the scent goes as steam is kept in water.
• The scent of rose is drawn only in a utensil of copper. At many places, the scent is extracted with a method of condensing.
• But the distillation method is more effective. Only 20 grams of scent is extracted from a quintal of flowers.
• The cost of one Kilogram of scent is about 8 lakh of rupees at the international market. In November and December, the stems are chopped off and planted.
The flowers start blossoming in the month of March and April. There are a thousand varieties of the rose flowers, but the maximum quantum of scent is extracted from the Bulgarian variety.
The profitability of rose cultivation can be gauged from the fact if the harvest of rose turns out to be good then from this variety on 6 acres of land, three to eight lakhs of rupees can be earned from it.
How much does it cost on per acre on rose cultivation
It costs about Rs. 4,000 on planting the Bulgarian variety of roses in one acre of land. In one acre, about two thousand stems can be planted. It gets ready in three months time. The rose planted once, gives the yield for 15 years.